Kazoo Tasks

Run background jobs on Kazoo clusters.

Task inputs are CSV, JSON data or nothing at all & generate a CSV output.


Kazoo Tasks has its own Crossbar module implementing a RESTful API over at cb_tasks.

There is also a maintenance module whose entry points are documented here.

Task discovery

The tasks application discovers the different kinds of tasks provided by Kazoo applications on a cluster using tasks_bindings. A task has to bind to tasks.Category.help, tasks.Category.help.Action & tasks.Category.Action.

A task's metadata

  • description (string()): short sentence explaining the tasks input & outputs.
  • doc (string()): multiline paragraph explaining description further.
  • expected_content ("text/csv" | undefined): MIME type of input data. Either CSV or no input data.
  • mandatory ([string()]): list of CSV fields that must be defined in the input data. List can be empty.
  • optional ([string()]): the rest of the CSV fields. Can be empty too.

Note: mandatory & optional can both be empty only if expected_content is undefined. Such a task is a "noinput task": a task that does not requires CSV input data.

Writing tasks

Note: input rows are processed one by one, top to bottom and produce 0 or 1 rows of output. For noinput tasks it is also possible to create more than one row of output.

Let's call Module the name of the module implementing an app's tasks and TaskName one of these tasks' name.


This function is called before attempting to run the task. It should return a CSV header as allowed by the type kz_csv:row(). If the call crashes, the header used is made of mandatory, optional & "error".


Before applying the task, verifiers are applied to each cell of the row. Verifier is the CSV header name of the current cell. The function take the cell as input and should return true: if the cell is valid input false: otherwise If the call crashes, false is assumed.


Called as Module:TaskName(ExtraArgs, Iterator).

This means the scheduler determined this to be a noinput task.

The first argument ExtraArgs contains the following pairs: account_id: account id that created the task instance. auth_account_id: account id of the X-Auth-Token used when creating the task instance.

As second argument, the function takes one of: init: so that the function can return {ok, Data}. Nothing is written to output and Data will be passed to the function on next call as the 2nd argument. Data: the term that a previous call to the function returned. This way one can work with state in between iterations.

If the call crashes, the current input row plus an "error" column is written to output.csv.

Called as Module:TaskName(ExtraArgs, Iterator, Args).

This call applies the task with the current row as a map in Args.

If an optional input value is not defined or empty, its value is undefined.

The same rules as above apply on the 1st & 2nd arguments.

Return values

The function must return a valid instance of the type kz_tasks:return():

  • stop: ends the task & uploads the output CSV.
  • ok: row is counted as successful, nothing is written in the error column.
  • ne_binary(): the error to write in the error column.
  • kz_csv:row(): the row to write (useful if output_header(TaskName) was implemented).
  • [kz_csv:row()]: this is only supported for noinput tasks. Writes more than 1 row to output.
  • {ok, Data}: nothing is written to output and Data will be passed to the function on next call.
  • {ToWrite, Data}: where ToWrite is either a kz_csv:row() or [kz_csv:row()]. Writes them to output & will pass Data on next call.
  • {binary(), Data}: writes the binary string to output & will pass Data on next call.
  • {Error, Data}: attempts to write Error as an error to output & will pass Data on next call.


Examples of both kinds of tasks can be found in

Task statuses

Once a task has been added it can have one of the following statuses:

  • "pending": task created (input uploaded, if any) but has not been started yet.
  • "executing": task has been started & has not finished yet.
  • "success": task finished executing & no rows failed to process.
  • "failure": task finished executing & all rows failed to process.
  • "partial": task finished executing & some rows failed to process.
  • "internal_error": all other cases. Maybe the application crashed? Maybe disk is full? ...

Once a task completed (with either "success", "failure" or "partial"), if the upload of the output.csv file failed, you can find your task's output /tmp/task_out.TaskId.csv.


When executing a task, its failed & succeeded rows counts will be periodically updated at a configurable rate. Set tasks.send_progress_after_processed to the rate you prefer (default: 1000). Be careful as a rate too low may corrupt a task's state.

After a task's function (TaskName) has been called, the worker will wait a configurable number of milliseconds before proceeding with the next row. Set tasks.wait_after_row_ms to the pause you want the system to make in between writes to output (default: 500).

Headless Tasks

You can create tasks that run periodically (like cronjobs) or that operation on a subset of databases.

There are a number of triggers you can use in your module's init/0:


  • Cron-like
    • Minutely
    • Hourly
    • Daily
  • Database
    • Account DBs
    • Account MODBs
    • System DBs
    • Other DBs

You can also combine multiple triggers when binding your module


A simple example:

init() ->
    _ = tasks_bindings:bind(?TRIGGER_ALL_DBS, ?MODULE, 'handle_database').

Find the trigger macros in the tasks header. This particular example will bind the module's handle_database/1 to be run each time a database is processed by the kz_tasks_trigger process.

Cron triggers will need an arity-0 function to callback to; database triggers call an arity-1 function.

Callback function

All modules bound to a particular trigger will run in serial, so be mindful of that. If your operation is quick, do it directly. If it has the potential to take a while, consider spawning the work so the other modules can get to their business too.

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